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Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park

Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru (TNBTS) is a national park set in 1982 in East Java in the district of Pasuruan, Malang, Lumajang and Probolinggo, has an area of 503 square kilometers includes 15 mountains, caldera desert and 700 meter-high cliff wall.

Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park is a natural area protected includes 15 active volcanoes is Mount Semeru (3676 meters), Bromo (2329 meters), Batok (2470 meters), Kursi (2581 meters), Watangan (2601 meters), Widodaren (2650 meters), Linggo, Penanjakan, Pundak Lembu, Gandera, Ringgit, Widangan, Sumbersenami, Pranten and Bajangan.

Tinuku Travel Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park in East Java includes 15 volcanoes and indigenous heritage Tengger tribe

Tinuku.com Travel Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park in East Java includes 15 volcanoes and indigenous heritage Tengger tribe

Travel.Tinuku.com Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park in East Java includes 15 volcanoes and indigenous heritage Tengger tribe

Parks have sub-montane ecosystem types, montane and sub-alphin with a variety of large trees hundreds of years old as Pohon Cemara Gunung, Jamuju, Edelweiss flower, orchids and other rare grass. On June 9, 2015, the area defined by UNIESCO as a Biosphere Reserve Bromo Tengger Semeru (CB-BTSA).

TNBTS neighborhood surrounded by 66 villages, 2 rural enclaves and home to the Tengger tribe with religious and cultural life is very typical. Tengger tribe is a sub-tribe of Javanese culture and thought to be direct descendants of the Majapahit Kingdom.

More than 1,025 species of flora and dominated by the family Moraceae, Araliaceae, Meliaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Apocynaceae. At the level of scrub dominated by the family Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Verbenaceae, Zingiberaceae and Liana in some kind member family Piperaceae, Araceae and Polypodiaceae.

The area has 158 types of orchids and 40 species of which are very rare is Malaxis purpureonervosa and Habenaria tosariensis as endemic. Macodes pentola is a protected species of orchids Act. TNBTS also known as the "Land of Edelweiss" which has 3 types of Edelweiss is Anaphalis longofilia, Anaphalis javanica and Anaphalis viscida.

At least 38 species of wildlife protected by the government is 24 aves species, 11 mammals species, 2 insects species and one reptile. TNBTS region is home to 118 species of birds such as Javan eagle (Nisaetus bartelsi), Haliuastur indus, Falco mauccensis, Pavo muticus, Halcyon cyanopventris, Pericrocatus miniatus and Parus major.

At least 18 species of mammals and 14 species of them have high conservation value such Manis javanica, Javan leopard (Panthera pardus), Javan langur (Trachypithecus auratus), Hystryx branchyura, Laricus sp., and Muntiacus muntjak. Leopard and Javan langur identified from camera traps in locations Mount Kukusan.

Javan langur is a species of primates endemic to the island of Java and Bali. Low reproductive rate and the absence of mating season led to a limited population. Trachypithecus auratus only have a single offspring, so that damage to the habitat increasingly led to population decline.

At least 11 species of reptiles in the park include Ular Sendok Jawa or Javan cobra snake (Naja sputatrix), Water snake (Cerberus rynchops), Ganduk luwuk snake or Green tree snake (Cryptelytrops albolabris), Ular tanah (Agkistrodon rhodostoma) and Chameleon (Bronchocela kuhlii).

Based on the results of inventory at least 14 types of insecta include Delias butterfly (Delias aurantiaca), Appias butterfly (Appias lyncida), Blue wings butterfly (Graphium sarpedon), King butterfly (Papilio amphrysus), Orange butterfly (Papilio paris) and Large butterfly (Triodes cuneifera).

Tinuku Travel Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park in East Java includes 15 volcanoes and indigenous heritage Tengger tribe

Tinuku.com Travel Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park in East Java includes 15 volcanoes and indigenous heritage Tengger tribe

Travel.Tinuku.com Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park in East Java includes 15 volcanoes and indigenous heritage Tengger tribe

Location: Pasuruan, Malang, Lumajang and Probolinggo in East Java.

Activity: Trekking, hiking, camping and hammocking. Explore the flora and fauna. Explore ethnography, archeology, architecture and culture. Seeing sunset and sunrise, hunting photography and videography, and others.

Complementary facilities: Camping equipment. Car parking, restrooms, restaurants, hotels and resorts.

Reach access: 357 km from Yogyakarta city, 30 km from Malang city, 44 km from Probolinggo city, 46 km from Pasuruan city.

Official site: http://bromotenggersemeru.org/

Contact: Balai Besar Taman Nasional Bromo Tengger Semeru.
Jl. Raden Intan No.6, phone: +62341491828, Fax: +62341490885, Malang.

Advice: In addition to Mount Bromo which is a major attraction, Mount Semeru is the highest mountain on Java island is the main attraction for hikers. Climbers are advised to take the route of Malang that has the beauty of desert. Start point can be started from Ngadas which is the last village inside the national park as well as a place for supplies.

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