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Ollantaytambo

Ollantaytambo or Ullantaytampu is a city and ruin site built by the Inca Empire in Sacred Valley in Ollantaytambo District, Urubamba Province, Cusco Region, Peru, at an altitude of 2,792 meters (9,160 ft) shortly after Emperor Pachacuti conquered the area and built a ceremonial center.

Ollantaytambo is a remote village dominated by two great Inca ruins as the best example of Inca city planning with narrow stone streets that have been inhabited since the 13th century. The building serves as a fortress by Manco Inca Yupanqui is a leader of the struggle of the Incas during the Spanish conquest in Peru.

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History

Emperor Pachacuti conquered and destroyed Ollantaytambo in the mid-15th century, then rebuilt the city with a luxurious construction, doing extensive terracing and irrigation work in the Urubamba Valley. The city provides lodging for Inca nobles and a terrace planted by yanakuna as a follower.

Ollantaytambo served as the temporary capital for Manco Inca was the original resistance leader against Spain where Cusco as its previous capital had fallen under colonial rule. Manco Inca defeated a Spanish expedition and blocked them on the Mascabamba plain near Ollantaytambo in 1536.

Manco Inca thought the place could not be sustained longer, so in the following year it withdrew to a forest site in Vilcabamba to establish the Neo-Inca State. The Inca ruins in Ollantaytambo attracted the attention of several foreign explorers in the 19th century including Clements Markham, Ephraim Squier, Charles Wiener, and Ernst Middendorf to publish reports on their findings.

Structure

The town of Ollantaytambo is located along the Patakancha River and the point of joining the Willkanuta River. Today, it lies in what is called the Inca Valley and is a complex that has sections all over the region and all that is left in the ruins.

The main design has an orthogonal layout with four longitudinal paths crossed by seven parallel paths. In the center is a large plaza that may be four blocks in size and surrounded by a hall. All the blocks in the southern part of the city are built with the same design, each of which consists of two kancha, four-walled buildings and one room around the central courtyard.

Araqhama or Temple Hill bordering Cerro Bandolista is a steep hill where the Incas build a ceremonial center. The hillside overlooking the city is occupied by Pumatallis terraces framed on both sides by a rock outcrop. The main access is a series of stairs.

Many stone blocks are scattered and littered Temple Hill indicating the building is still in construction. Some of the causes that stopped development at Temple Hill are unknown, but the chances are a succession war between Huáscar and Atahualpa, the Spanish Conquest in Peru, and the withdrawal of Manco Inca from Ollantaytambo to Vilcabamba.

The terrace at Ollantaytambo is built to a higher standard than other Inca farm terraces. The higher walls are made of cut stone instead of rough stone. A sunken set of terraces begins south of the Plaza de Armas Ollantaytambo which extends to the Urubamba River.

The terrace is 700 meters long, 60 meters wide, and up to 15 meters below the level of the surrounding terrace. The soil inside Callejón is protected from the wind by a lateral wall that also absorbs daytime sun radiation and releases it at night to create a 2C to 3C microclimate zone warmer than the ground above it.

Several warehouses or qullqas from rocks in the hills that surround Ollantaytambo. Locations in the highlands where there is more wind and lower temperatures, Qullqas has a ventilation system to store agricultural production of terraces built around the site. The harvest is poured into the window on the top side, then emptied through the downed side window.

www.xvlor.com Ollantaytambo is second capital ruins complex of Inca empire

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Location: Ollantaytambo District, Urubamba Province, Cusco Region, Peru

Routes and public transport: Flights to Alejandro Velasco Astete International Airport in Cusco City. Ollantaytambo is in between Cuzco and the forest and there is no alternative road where the buses run through a narrow main road.

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