Etosha National Park

Etosha National Park is a conservation area of 22,270 sq kilometers (8,600 sq mi) in the Kunene region and shares borders with the regions of Oshana, Oshikoto and Otjozondjupa in Namibia. Park surrounds Etosha pan is a salt area of 4760 sq kilometers or 23% area of Etosha National Park.

Etosha National Park is home to hundreds of species of mammals, birds and reptiles, including some endangered species, such as the black rhino, proclaimed as a game reserve on March 22, 1907 in Ordinance 88. In 1958 Etosha Game Park became and in 1967 became Etosha National Park.

Xvlor Etosha National Park is wildlife ring of 22,270 sq km in Etosha pan Etosha National Park is wildlife ring of 22,270 sq km in Etosha pan


Explorers Charles John Andersson and Francis Galton were the first Europeans to report on the existence of Etosha pan on May 29, 1851 when traveling with copper ore traders Ovambo. They reported Etosha as they traveled north to leave Namutoni.

The national park has undergone many changes in size. Etosha was proclaimed as Game Reserve 2 in 1907 in Ordinance 88 and stretches from the Kunene river and Hoarusib river on Skeleton Coast to Namutoni in the east for 99,526 sq kilometers (38,427 sq mi).

Ordinance 18 of 1958 changed the boundary to exclude the area between the Kunene and Hoarusib rivers and instead covered the area between the Hoanib river and the Uchab river, thus reducing up to 55,000 sq kilometers (21,000 sq mi) and in 1970 authorized by law to produce park boundary demarcation now an area of 22,270 sq kilometers (8,600 sq mi).


Etosha pan is a depression covering 5,000 sq kilometers (1,900 sq mi) with a length of 130 kilometers (81 miles) and a width of 50 kilometers (31 miles). Hypersaline limits the species permanently inhabiting within the area. Salt is hot and dry, but filled with water briefly in summer where pelicans and flamingos come.

In the dry season, the wind blows across Etosha pan and picks up salt dust to fly across the country and out through the south Atlantic, also creating challenges to farming. Etosha Pan is one of several sites throughout southern Africa in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000).

Dolomite Hills on the southern border of the park near the entrance of Andersson called Ondundozonananandana which has a high predator density such as leopard in the hills. West Etosha is also dominated by dolomite hill which is the only place in the park which has mountain zebra.

The Etosha National Park has a savanna desert climate and the annual average temperature is 24C. In winter averages 10C and in summer temperatures around 40C. The deserts produce a great variation between day and night. The rain is hardly ever in winter.


Etosha pan does not have much vegetation except Sporobolus salsus is a protein-rich grass used by grazers such as blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis). Other halophytic vegetation includes Sporobolus spicatus, Odyssea paucinervis and Suaeda articulata.

Mopane (Colophospermum mopane) is the most common tree for about 80% of all trees in the park, then acacia (Acacia verticillatum), terminalia and Spirostachys africana. Savana includes Salsola etoshensis, Acacia nebrownii, Acacia luederitzii, Acacia melliferra, Acacia hebeclada and Acacia tortilis. Grassland is predominantly Eragrostis, Sporobolus, Monelytrum, Odyssea or Enneapogon.

Mammals are abundant including African bush elephant (Loxodonta africana), Angolan giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis angolensis), Southern African lion (Panthera leo melanochaita), African leopard (Panthera pardus pardus), caracal (Caracal caracal), Southern African wildcat (Felis lybica cafra), bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis), cape fox (Vulpes chama), brown hyena (Hyaena brunnea) and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta).

Aardwolf (Proteles cristata), meerkat (Suricata suricatta), banded mongoose (Mungos mungo), yellow mongoose (Cynictis penicillata), mongoose slender, common genet (Genetta genetta), common warthog (Phacochoerus africanus), scrub hare (Lepus saxatilis), black-backed jackal (Canis mesomelas) and African ground squirrel (Xerus).

Aardvark (Orycteropus afer), crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata), plains zebra (Equus quagga), mountain zebra (Equus zebra), springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), impala (Aepyceros melampus), gemsbok (Oryx gazellav), dik-dik (Madoqua), steenbok (Raphicerus campestris), red hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus caama), blue wildebeest and Trudelaphus strepsiceros.

Birds include South African ostrich, vultures, eagles, secretary birds, kites, falcons, owls, storks, blue cranes, white pelican, flamingos, waterfowl, galliformes, coursers and pratincoles, waders, rollers, hoopoe, hornbills, crows, sandgrouse, pigeons and doves, bustards, shrikes and bushshrikes, waxbills, bulbuls, larks and herons. Etosha National Park is wildlife ring of 22,270 sq km in Etosha pan

Xvlor Etosha National Park is wildlife ring of 22,270 sq km in Etosha pan

Location: Kunene region, Namibia.

Routes and public transport: Flight to Ondangwa Airport in Ondangwa City, then drive to Etosha National Park for 124 kilometers for 2 hours.

Advice: All lodgings and camping accommodation within the park are managed by Namibia Wildlife Resorts (NWR). Five lodge locations and four camping facilities within the park include Dolomite Camp, Halali Camp, Namutoni Camp, Okaukuejo Rest Camp, Onkoshi Camp and Olifantsrus.

Other properties and cottages include Anderssons Camp, Eagle Tented Lodge & Spa, Emanya Game Lodge, Etosha Aoba Lodge, Etosha Safari Lodge, Etosha Village, Cork Game Ranch, Hobatere Lodge, Mokuti Etosha Lodge, Mopane Village Lodge, Mushara Bush Camp, Mushara Outpost, Onguma Lodge, Onguma Lodge, Onguma Lodge, Onguma Tree Camp, Onguma Tree Camp, Onguma Tree Top Camp, Ushua Safari Lodge and Villa Mushara.