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Khajuraho

Khajuraho or Kharjuravāhaka are a group of Hindu and Jain temples built by the Chandela Dynasty in 980 to 1050 in Chhatarpur District, Madhya Pradesh State, India, famous for its architectural symbolism and erotic figurines. This UNESCO World Heritage Site covers 85 temples spread over 20 square kilometers, but only about 25 temples survive from Islamic vandalism and spread over 6 square kilometers.

Khajuraho is a complex of monuments simultaneously dedicated to Hinduism and Jainism that exhibit a tradition of acceptance and respect for various religious views among Hindus and Jains in the region that record the daily events of central India in the 8th century until the 10th century AD.

Xvlor Khajuraho is group of Hindu and Jain temples built by Chandela dynasty

Xvlor.com Khajuraho is group of Hindu and Jain temples built by Chandela dynasty

History

The Kandariya Mahadeva Temple built by King Vidyadhara is the largest and still well preserved temple which is decorated with statues in detail, symbolism, and expressiveness of Indian art deeply. The temple inscriptions show many complete temples between 970 and 1030 AD and further temples were completed over the following decades.

The Khajuraho complex was built about 35 miles from the medieval city of Mahoba as the capital of the Chandela dynasty in the Kalinjar region. This kingdom is referred to as Jijhoti, Jejahoti, Chih-chi-to and Jejakabhukti. In 1022 AD Islamic jihadists attacked Kalinjar, but failed to colonize.

The Khajuraho temple remained in active use until the end of the 12th century. This changed in the 13th century where the jihadists under the command of Sultan Qutb-ud-din Aibak again attacked Chandela. About a century later, Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan traveler in his memoirs of living in India in 1335 to 1342 AD, said: "Khajuraho temples containing idols have been mutilated by Muslims".

Central India region where Khajuraho temple remains the target of terrorism campaigns and vandalism by many Islamic dynasties until the 18th century. The remoteness of Khajuraho's location protects Hindu and Jain temples by the continued destruction of Muslims. Over the centuries, vegetation and forests overflowed to fortify the temple.

A British surveyor T.S. Burt in the 1830s was guided by a Hindu to a temple. Alexander Cunningham later reported several years after the rediscovery that the temples were secretly used by yogis and thousands of Hindus for pilgrimage during Shivaratri is celebrated every year in February or March based on the lunar calendar.

Architecture

Khajuraho temple is made of sandstone with granite base and does not use mortar where the stones are put together using weaving joints and gravity pressure. This form of construction requires a very precise connection where columns and architraves are built with megaliths that weigh up to 20 tons. The statue has fine details such as strands of hair, preserved nails and intricate jewelry.

Khajuraho temple like almost all the design of Hindu temples are geometric, symmetrical, concentric, circle and repeating. Most are 8x8 patterned and square boxes incorporated in tower designs in a symmetrical pattern of repetition, although each image or sculpture is different in its own way. All Khajuraho temples face the sunrise and the entrance for worshipers is the east side.

Image placement is relatively random but together expresses the idea where fractal patterns are common in Hindu temples. Various sculptures and panels have inscriptions on the walls of the temple with multiple meanings, something that the intricate structure of Sanskrit language allows in its creative composition.

List of Khajuraho temples, affiliates, gods and years

1. Chausath Yogini, Hinduism, Devi, 885
2. Lalgun, Mahadev, Hinduism, Shiva, 900
3. Brahma, Hinduism, Vishnu, 925
4. Lakshmana, Hinduism, Vaikuntha Vishnu, 939
5. Varaha, Hinduism, Vishnu, 950
6. Parshvanatha, Jainism, Parshvanatha, 954
7. Ghantai, Jainism, Adinatha, 960
8. Mahishasuramardini, Hinduism, Mahishasuramardini, 995
9. Vishvanatha, Hinduism, Shiva, 999
10. Matangeshwar, Hinduism, Shiva, 1000
11. Vishnu-Garuda, Hinduism, Vishnu, 1000
12. Ganesha, Hinduism, Shiva, 1000
13. Devi Jagadambi, Hinduism, Devi-Parvati, 1023
14. Chitragupta Hinduism, Sun-Chitragupta, 1023
15. Adinath, Jainism, Adinatha, 1027
16. Shantinatha, Jainism, Shantinatha, 1027
17. Kandariya Mahadeva, Hinduism, Shiva, 1029
18. Vamana, Hinduism, Vamana, 1062
19. Javeri, Hinduism, Vishnu, 1090
20. Chaturbhuja, Hinduism, Vishnu, 1110
21. Duladeo (Duladeva), Hinduism, Shiva 1125

Art

Khajuraho temple displays various works of art where 10% is sexual or erotic art outside and inside the temple as a tantric sexual practice. Erotic art is part of the Hindu tradition of treating kama as an important and precise part of human life, a symbolic or explicit display common in Hindu temples.

The temples have several thousand statues and works of art. Much of the art depicts aspects of everyday life, mythical stories and also the symbolic display of important secular and spiritual values that are important in the Hindu tradition, such as women wearing makeup, musicians making music, pottery, peasants, etc. during the century mid.

The iconographic symbolism embedded in art displayed at the Khajuraho temple includes the core values of Hinduism expressed in many ways that developed in the Rajput kingdom of India from the 8th century through the 10th century AD. Some of the themes expressed in literary works are carved as sculptures in Khajuraho temples.

www.xvlor.com Khajuraho is group of Hindu and Jain temples built by Chandela dynasty

Xvlor Khajuraho is group of Hindu and Jain temples built by Chandela dynasty

Location: Chhatarpur District, Madhya Pradesh State, India

Routes and public transport: Flights to Khajuraho Airport. Khajuraho is located about 620 kilometers (385 miles) southeast of New Delhi. The temples are near a small town also known as Khajuraho.

The site is also linked by India Railway service with a train station about 6 kilometers from the entrance of the monument. Khajuraho Monument is about 10 kilometers from National Highway 75 or about 50 kilometers from the town of Chhatarpur.

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