Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, bricks, earth, wood, and other materials, built in the 600s BC along the east to west line across the northern border of China to protect the Chinese empires against raids and invasion of various nomad groups from the Eurasian Steppe.

The Great Wall of China was first built in the 7th century BC, then merged together and made bigger and stronger that are collectively referred to as the Great Wall. The famous wall was built by Emperor Qin Shi Huang in 220-206 BC, then rebuilt and upgraded during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).

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The archaeological survey found all walls with all branches 21,196 kilometers long (13,171 mi). The main objectives are defense, border control for customs clearance along the Silk Road, and immigration control. Structures equipped with watch towers, troop barracks, garrison stations, signals by means of smoke or fire, and roads as transport corridors.

The Great Wall is a series of several walls built at different times by different emperors. The first constructions were built by the Qin Dynasty (221-207 BC), second construction by the Han Dynasty (205-127 BC), the third construction by the Jin Dynasty (1200 AD), and the fourth by the Ming Dynasty (1367-1644).

The structure extends from Dandong in the east to Lop Lake in the west or along the southern edge of Mongolia. The Ming-built wall measures 8,850 kilometers (5,500 miles) consisting of 6,259 kilometers (3,889 mi) of wall, 359 kilometers (223 mi) moat and natural barriers such as hills and rivers 2,232 kilometers (1,387 miles).

Early era

The Chinese are familiar with the technique of building the wall between the 8th century to the 5th century BC which is always war. The Qin, Wei, Zhao, Qi, Yan, and Zhongshan states built a vast fortress to guard their own borders and prevent small arms attacks like swords and spears.

King Zheng of Qin conquered the enemies and united China as the First Emperor of the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC. Zheng ordered the destruction of parts of the wall between the earlier states and built new walls to connect the remaining fortresses along the northern border of the empire.

The rocks from the mountains are used over the mountains, while rammed earth is used for construction on the plains. Estimate hundreds of thousands of workers die while building walls. There is no historical record that shows the length and direction of the Qin wall, largely eroded over the centuries and very few remaining sections.

The Han Dynasty, the Sui Dynasty, and the northern dynasties rebuilt and expanded the Great Wall at great cost to defend themselves from northern invaders. The Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty did not make significant efforts in the area, but the Liao Dynasty, Jin Dynasty, and Yuan Dynasties in the 12th century built walls in Inner Mongolia and Mongolia or north of the Great Wall.

Ming Era

The Ming Dynasty in the 1440s to the 1460s suffered many defeats and failed to subdue the Mongolian tribes after successive battles and the protracted conflict had taken many victims. Ming adopted a new strategy to prevent nomadic tribes by building walls along China's northern border.

Stronger and more complex construction using stone and bricks where more than 25,000 watchtowers are built on the wall. Ming also built the "Liaodong Wall" to protect Liaodong Province from the Jurched-Mongol Oriyanghan attack in the northwest and Journeyen Jianzhou in the north.

The Great Wall built by Ming helped defend the empire against the Manchu invasion of the 1600s, but ultimately seized Beijing and established the Qing Dynasty all over China. Under the Qing government, China's border crossed the wall and Mongolia was annexed by the empire, so construction on the Great Wall was stopped.

Landscape

The geography of northern China is mountains, grasslands, and semi-arid deserts. Most of the Great Wall lies in the desert region. Wildlife varies along the Great Wall including the Siberian tiger in the northeast to the Giant Pandas in southern Gansu, Sichuan and Shaanxi.

Wild mammals in the north include the Manchurian weasel, brown and black bears, northern pika and mandarin. Deer species include Sitka deer and roe deer. The birds include black grouse, pine grosbeak, woodpecker, mandarin duck, pitta fairy, and crane. Plants include ginseng (Panax ginseng).

www.xvlor.com Great Wall of China is bastion of defense to deter the northern invaders

Xvlor Great Wall of China is bastion of defense to deter the northern invaders

Location: China

Routes and public transport: Flights to Beijing Capital International Airport in Beijing. The four most popular cities to visit the Great Wall near Beijing are reached by road travel:
  • Badaling: 1.5 hours from Beijing, very low physical demands, very high crowding, fit for handicapped.
  • Mutianyu: 1.5 hours from Beijing, low physical demands, high crowding, fit for kids and seniors.
  • Simatai: 2 hours from Beijing, medium physical demands, low crowding, ordinary hikers.
  • Jiankou: 2,5 hours from Beijing, very high physical demands, very low crowding, strong hikers.

Advice: The best time is spring (April-May) because it is sunny or autumn (September-November) because it is quiet. Spring in the Beijing mountains is warm and the plants make the Giant Wall beautiful. Autumn is the best hiking season due to fine weather, allowing you to stroll into the distance.

Strongly recommended take a private tour. It takes about 2 hours to get to the Great Wall from downtown Beijing. If you stay at a hotel near the Great Wall, Simatai offers the best hotels and nightlife to avoid traffic congestion, avoid queuing at ticket gates, enjoying sunset and night views from the Great Wall.

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