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Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park

The Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park is a conservation area of 1,577 sq kilometers with a length of 100 kilometers from north to south and a width of up to 40 kilometers in Melaky Region, Madagascar, to protect the Great Tsingy and the Little Tsingy geological formations listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The karst highlands where groundwater has dramatically sculpted caves and slits into limestone in vertical and horizontal patterned erosion.

The Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park becomes a superposition of vertical and horizontal erosion patterns has created a limestone needle forest where the word "tsingy" in Malagasy as a place where people can not walk barefoot. This remarkable geomorphology is home to a large number of endemic species found only in very small niches.

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The park is located north of the River Manombolo and rivers that come from the highlands and have seasonal or permanent characters. Extremely rugged massive lime rocks with many caves and valleys carved by the Manambolo River create a very sharp relief, covered in large sections by dense dry forests offering the most spectacular natural scenery in the world.

Massif karstics have a variety of natural habitats with many different ecosystems including dense deciduous forests, dense xerophytic vegetation in tsingy on limestone slopes and sub-humid forest in valleys or lowlands among limestone blocks in the savanna. At least 650 species of plants and lemurs, land and aquatic birds, bats, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals.

The inhabitants are predominantly Sakalava tribe is an ethnic group living according to tradition protected by fady (ban or taboo). The region also plays an important ecological role in the wider region as a source of water for the entire downstream part of the Bemaraha plateau, especially in the Manambolomaty Lake complex as one of the three RAMSAR sites in Madagascar.

Tsingy is a true landscape of limestone formed by highly dense networks of splits, clefts, and surfaces. These limestone rocks formed by fossil deposits and shells beneath the sea 200 million years ago, then formed by rain 5 million years ago. Tsingy offers one of the most spectacular sights in Madagascar or the rest of the world.

Location: Melaky Region, Madagaskar.

Routes and public transport: Flights to Morondava Airport in Morondava City, then to Bekopaka town, then to Andadoany as the southern gateway and the headquarters of Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park. Other flights to Maintirano Airport in Maintirano City, then to Antsalova Town as the northern gateway.

Advice: Andadoany is a park headquarters where it serves all the necessary information for a visit to the park including tourist information, guides, park entrance fees and guide fees. You can pay directly on location for the services offered, entrance fees, guides, and boat fees.

By 2015, foreign tourists pay 55,000 Ariary for adults and 25,000 Ariary for children for tickets per day to park. Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park has 23 independent guides and 8 agents. The majority of guides are affiliated with associations and training on guidance techniques, language enhancement, geology, fauna, flora and local traditions.

Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park has a dry tropical climate characterized by two contrasting seasons. It rains from November to April and dries from May to October.

Manambolo Campsite and Masoarivo Campsite are managed by Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park providing camping equipment and guides. A variety of hotels around the park. Locals also provide accommodation to enjoy a traditional warm welcome.

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Andadoany and Ankeligoa Circuit
  • Andadoany Circuit (Medium circuit, 4 hours walk, 2 km; 25,000 Ariary).
  • Ankeligoa Circuit (Medium circuit, 5 hours walk, 6 km; 30,000 Ariary).
  • Andadoany and Ankeligoa Circuit (40,000 Ariary).

Andamozavaky Circuit

Sporty circuit (4 - 6 hours walk, 4 km; 60,000 Ariary).

Anjohimanitsy Circuit
  • Medium circuit (1 day, 5 km; 36,000 Ariary).
  • Sporty circuit (2 days, 9 km; 20,000 Ariary for 1 person, 30,000 Ariary for 2 persons, 40,000 Ariary for 3-4 persons).

Manambolo circuit

Medium circuit (3 hours by pirogue, 6 km).
  • Manambolo Gorge (25,000 Ariary, pirogue 10,000 Ariary).
  • Manambolo Gorge and Ankeligoa Circuit (20,000 Ariary and 30,000 Ariary, pirogue 10,000 Ariary).

Manambolobe Circuit

Medium circuit (1 day or 2 days of walk, 5 km or 9km; 50,000 Ariary, pirogue 15,000 Ariary).

Oliha Circuit

Medium and difficult circuit
  • Oliha Circuit (1 day; 50 Euro to 95 Euro depending on the number of participants including park entrance fee, picnic lunch and canoe.
  • Oliha Circuit (2 days; 90 Euro to 200 Euro depending on the number of participants, including park entrance fee, breakfast, picnic lunch, canoe and overnight camping at Oliha Camp.

Berano Circuit

Medium circuit (3 hours walk, 3 km; 20,000 Ariary).

Ranotsara Circuit

Difficult circuit (4 - 6 hours walk, 3 km; 50,000 Ariary).

Tantely Circuit

Easy circuit (1 hour walk, 2 km, 12,000 Ariary).



Flora

The Tsingy de Bemaraha National Park has unique vegetation and endemic flora where dense forests, especially tropophiles, run continuously in the western part of the park and intersect with the savanna in the east. Some types of vegetation start from the very dry on the slab of limestone until wet in the canyon and along the river.

At least 86% of plant species are endemic and the Antsingy plant formation includes over 830 species comprising Angiospermae or Dicotyledons (flowering plants) in 84 families, 357 genera and 642 species. Monocotyledons include 21 families, 98 genera, and 175 species. Pteridophytes include 5 families, 14 genera, and 16 species.

Lemurs

Different studies have identified at least 11 species of endemic lemurs are fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius), grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), Peters' mouse lemur (Microcebus myoxinus), Coquerel's giant mouse lemur (Mirza coquereli).

Western fork-crowned lemur (Phaner pallescens), red-tailed sportive lemur (Lepilemur ruficaudatus), red lemur (Eulemur rufus), Western grey bamboo lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis), aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), Bemaraha woolly lemur (Avahi cleesei) and Van der Decken's sifaka (Propithecus deckenii).

Bats

Madagascan flying fox (Pteropus rufus), Madagascan fruit bat (Eidolon dupreanum), Madagascan rousette (Rousettus madagascariensis), Peters's sheath-tailed bat (Emballonura atrata), Mauritian tomb bat (Taphozous mauritianus), Trouessart’s trident bat (Paratriaenops furculus), Rufous trident bat (Triaenops menamena), Commerson's leaf-nosed bat (Hipposideros commersoni).

Madagascar free-tailed bat (Otomops madagascariensis), Grandidier's free-tailed bat (Chaerephon leucogaster), Malagasy white-bellied free-tailed bat (Mops leucostigma), Glen's long-fingered bat (Miniopterus gleni), Major's long-fingered bat (Miniopterus majori), Manavi long-fingered bat (Miniopterus manavi), Malagasy mouse-eared bat (Myotis goudoti) and Western yellow bat (Scotophilus tandrefana)

Carnivores

Falanouc (Eupleres goudotii), fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox), small Indian civet (Viverricula indica) and Malagasy ring-tailed mongoose (Galidia elegans occidentalis).

Rats

Tsingy tuft-tailed rat (Eliurus antsingy), dormouse tufted-tailed rat
(Eliurus myoxinus), lowland red forest rat (Nesomys lambertoni), house mouse (Mus musculus) and black rat (Rattus rattus).

Birds

Henst's goshawk (Accipiter henstii), Madagascar sparrowhawk (Accipiter madagascariensis), Madagascar cuckoo-hawk (Aviceda madagascariensis), Madagascar buzzard (Buteo brachypterus), Malagasy harrier (Circus macrosceles), Réunion harrier (Circus maillardi), Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides).

Bat hawk (Machaeramphus alcinus), yellow-billed kite (Milvus aegyptius), Madagascar harrier-hawk (Polybroides radiatus), Madagascar lark (Mirafra hova), Madagascar kingfisher (Alcedo vintsioides), Madagascar pygmy-kingfisher (Ceyx madagascariensis), white-faced whistling duck (Dendrocygna viduata), knob-billed duck (Sarkidiornis melanotos).

Oriental Darter (Anhinga melanogaster), African black swift (Apus barbatus), Alpine swift (Apus melba), African palm swift (Cypsiurus parvus), Madagascar spinetail (Zoonavena grandidieri), grey heron (Ardea cinerea), purple heron (Ardea purpurea), Madagascar pond-heron (Ardeola idae), squacco heron (Ardeola ralloides), cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis).

Green-backed heron (Butorides striatus), black heron (Egretta ardesiaca), dimorphic egret (Egretta dimorpha), common little bittern (Ixobrychus minutus), Madagascar cuckoo-shrike (Coracina cinerea), Madagascar nightjar (Caprimulgus madagascariensis), common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), African three-banded plover (Charadrius tricollaris).

Namaqua dove (Oena capensis), Madagascar turtle-dove (Streptopelia picturata), Madagascar green pigeon (Treron australis), broad-billed roller (Eurystomus glaucurus), pied crow (Corvus albus), Madagascar coucal (Centropus toulou), Coquerel's coua (Coua coquereli), crested coua (Coua cristata), giant coua (Coua gigas).

Red-capped coua (Coua ruficeps), Madagascar cuckoo (Cuculus rochii), crested drongo (Dicrurus forficatus), Madagascar mannikin (Lonchura nana), sooty falcon (Falco concolor), Madagascar kestrel (Falco newtoni), banded kestrel (Falco zoniventris), Mascarene martin (Phedina borbonica), cuckoo-roller (Leptosomus discolor).

Olive bee-eater (Merops superciliosus), Madagascar paradise-flycatcher (Terpsiphone mutata),Madagascar wagtail (Motacilla flaviventris), Madagascar green sunbird (Cinnyris notatus), souimanga sunbird (Cinnyris souimanga), helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris), long-tailed cormorant (Microcarbo africanus), Harlequin quail (Coturnix delegorguei).

Tsipohy (Margaroperdrix madagascariensis), Schlegel's asity (Philepitta schlegeli), Madagascar red fody (Foudia madagascariensis), Madagascar grebe (Tachybaptus pelzelnii), little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis), grey-headed lovebird (Agapornis canus), lesser vasa parrot (Coracopsis nigra), Greater vasa parrot (Coracopsis vasa).

Madagascar sandgrouse (Pterocles personatus), long-billed bernieria (Bernieria madagascariensis), Madagascar bulbul (Hypsipetes madagascariensis), Madagascar wood-rail (Canirallus kioloides), white-throated rail (Dryolimnas cuvieri), common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus).

Common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), hamerkop (Scopus umbretta), Madagascar long-eared owl (Asio madagascariensis), white-browed hawk-owl (Ninox superciliaris), Madagascar scops-owl (Otus rutilus), Madagascar starling (Hartlaubius auratus), Madagascar swamp-warbler (Acrocephalus newtoni), Madagascar cisticola (Cisticola cherina).

Common jery (Neomixis tenella), Madagascar brush-warbler (Nesillas typica), common newtonia (Newtonia brunneicauda), Madagascar crested ibis (Lophotibis cristata), Madagascar magpie-robin (Copsychus albospecularis), forest rock-thrush (Monticola sharpei), common stonechat (Saxicola torquatus), Madagascar buttonquail (Turnix nigricollis).

Cmmon barn-owl (Tyto alba), Madagascar hoopoe (Upupa marginata), white-headed vanga (Artamella viridis), red-tailed vanga (Calicalicus madagascariensis), blue vanga (Cyanolanius madagascarinus), sickle-billed vanga (Falculea palliata), Chabert's vanga (Leptopterus chabert), hook-billed vanga (Vanga curvirostris) and Malagasy white-eye (Zosterops maderaspatanus),

Skinks

Madagascar giant water skink (Amphiglossus reticulatus), gray skink (Amphiglossus ornaticeps), gold-spotted mabuya (Trachylepis aureopunctata), Trachylepis dumasi, elegant Mabuya (Trachylepis elegans), Gravenhorst's mabuya (Trachylepis gravenhorstii), Trachylepis tandrefana and Trachylepis volamenaloha.

Iguanas

Cuvier's Madagascar swift (Oplurus cuvieri), Merrem's Madagascar swift (Oplurus cyclurus), Madagascar iguana (Chalarodon madagascariensis), Zonosaurus bemaraha, Karsten's girdled lizard (Zonosaurus karsteni), western girdled lizard (Zonosaurus laticaudatus) and Madagascar girdled lizard (Zonosaurus madagascariensis).

Chameleons

Brygoo's leaf chameleon (Brookesia brygooi), dwarf chameleon (Brookesia exarmata), Antsingy leaf chameleon (Brookesia perarmata), carpet chameleon (Furcifer lateralis), Nicosia's chameleon (Furcifer nicosiai), Malagasy giant chameleon (Furcifer oustaleti) and Petter's chameleon (Furcifer petteri).

Geckos

Peters' Spotted Gecko (Geckolepis maculata), house gecko (Hemidactylus mercatorius), Blaesodactylus sakalava, Malagasy dwarf gecko (Lygodactylus klemmeri), ornate dwarf gecko (Lygodactylus ornatus), Boettger's dwarf gecko (Lygodactylus heterurus), Günther's dwarf gecko (Lygodactylus miops).

Grandidier's dwarf gecko (Lygodactylus tolampyae), Angel's petite gecko (Paragehyra petiti), Mocquard's Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura bastardi), Northern Madagascar ground gecko (Paroedura homalorhina), Paroedura karstophila, Paroedura stumpffi, Paroedura tanjaka, Abbott's day gecko (Phelsuma abbotti).

Madagascar day gecko (Phelsuma madagascariensis kochi), thick tail gecko (Phelsuma mutabilis), giant leaf-tailed gecko (Uroplatus fimbriatus), Gunther's flat-tail gecko (Uroplatus guentheri), Henkel's leaf-tailed gecko (Uroplatus henkeli) and spearpoint leaf-tail gecko (Uroplatus ebenaui).

Snakes

Brahminy blind snake (Rhamphotyphlops braminus), Reuters blind snake (Typhlops reuteri), Dumeril's boa (Acrantophis dumerili), Malagasy tree boa (Sanzinia madagascariensis ssp. madagascariensis), Malagasy tree boa (Sanzinia madagascariensis ssp. volontany), Alluaudina bellyi, Bernier's striped snake (Dromicodryas bernieri).

Four-striped snake (Dromicodryas quadrilineatus), tiny night snake (Ithycyphus miniatus), Ithycyphus oursi, Madagascar leaf-nosed snake (Langaha madagascariensis), giant Madagascan hognose (Leioheterodon madagascariensis), blonde hognose snake (Leioheterodon modestus), gold-collared snake (Liophidium rhodogaster).

Lateral water snake (Liopholidophis lateralis), yellow-striped water snake (Liopholidophis stumpffi), Madagascar cat-eyed snake (Madagascarophis colubrinus citrinus), Madagascar cat-eyed snake (Madagascarophis colubrinus occidentalis), pencil snake (Mimophis mahfalensis), Pseudoxyrhopus, Phisalixella arctifasciata, Lycodryas citrinus, Lycodryas gaimardi and Lycodryas pseudogranuliceps.

Crocodile, turtles and tortoise

Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus), Madagascar big-headed turtle (Erymnochelis madagascariensis), helmeted turtle (Pelomedusa subrufa), East African black mud turtle (Pelusios subniger) and flat-tailed tortoise (Pyxis planicauda).

Amphibians

Indus valley bullfrog (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus), Mascarene grass frog or (Ptychadena mascareniensis), Madagascar sand frog (Tomopterna labrosa), Betsileo reed frog (Heterixalus betsileo), Heterixalus carbonei, Heterixalus luteostriatus, Antsouhy tomato frog (Dyscophus insularis), Mahanoro digging frog (Plethodontohyla notosticta).

Moquard's burrowing frog (Scaphiophryne calcarata), marbled rain frog (Scaphiophryne marmorata), Scaphiophryne menabensis, Stumpffia, Madagascar jumping frog (Aglyptodactylus madagascariensis), western white lipped treefrog (Boophis occidentalis), Ankafana bright-eyed frog (Boophis luteus), Boophis doulioti.

Dumeril's bright-eyed frog (Boophis tephraeomystax), Madagascar bullfrog (Laliostoma labrosum), brown mantella (Mantella betsileo), two-pore Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus biporus), Isalo Madagascar frog (Gephyromantis corvus), Ankafana Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus curtus), white folohy Madagascar frog (Gephyromantis luteus).

Grainy Madagascar frog (Gephyromantis granulatus), Mantidactylus sp. (cf corvus) prob M.tsingy, Warty Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus ulcerosus) and Witte's Madagascar frog (Mantidactylus wittei).

Butterflies

Griveaudia vieui, Borbo skipper (Borbo borbonica), twin swift (Borbo gemella), Borbo havei, Coeliades ernesti, Coeliades forestas cubegastei, Coeliades rama, Coeliades ramanatek, Fulda australis, Fulda bernieri, Fulda lucida, Fulda rhadama, Miraja, African straight (Parnara naso poutieri), dark small-branded swift (Pelopidas mathias).

Tagiades insularis, Tagiades samborana, cupreous hairtail (Anthene princeps), African babul blue (Azanus jesous), large Madagascar babul blue (Azanus sitalces sitalces), Chilades minuscula, brown playboy (Deudorix antalus), Euchrysops decaryi, common smoky blue (Euchrysops malathana), Osiris smoky blue (Euchrysops osoris).

Hemiolaus cobaltina, purple-brown hairstreak (Hypolycaena philippus ssp. ramonza), long-tailed blue (Lampides boeticus), Madagascar black-eye (Leptomyrina phidias), Lang's short-tailed blue (Leptotes pirithous), Leptotes rabefaner, dark grass blue (Zizeeria knysna), dark grass blue (Zizina antanossa), tiny grass blue (Zizula hylax).

Acraea dissimilis, common acraea (Acraea encedon), orange acraea (Acraea eponina), Acraea igati, Acraea mahela, Acraea ranavalona, Acraea turna, Acraea zitja, Madagascan friar (Amauris nossima antsingyi), Apaturopsis kilusa, Apaturopsis paulianii, common joker (Byblia anvatara anvatara), Charaxes andara, Charaxes andranodorus.

Madagascar green-veined charaxes (Charaxes antamboulou), club-tailed emperor (Charaxes zoolina betsimisaraka), Cymothoe lambertoni, African map butterfly (Cyrestis camillus elegans), plain tiger (Danaus chrysippus), Eurantha madagascariensis, Eurica madagascariensis, golden piper (Eurytela dryope lineata).

Henotesia ankaratra, Henotesia laeta, Henotesia maeva, Henotesia narcissus fraterna, deceptive eggfly (Hypolimnas deceptor), danaid eggfly (Hypolimnas misippus), Libythea tsiandava, common evening brown (Melanitis leda ssp. helena), Aterica rabena, Malagasy sailer (Neptidopsis fulgurata fulgurata), Neptis kikideli, polka dot (Pardopsis punctatissima).

Phalanta madagascariensis, common leopard (Phalanta phalantha aethiopica), banded commodore (Precis andremiaja), Precis eurodoce, Precis goudotii, yellow pansy (Junonia hierta), blue pansy (Junonia oenone), brilliant blue (Junonia rhadama), Pseudacraea imerina, Pseudacraea peyrierasi, clouded mother-of-pearl (Protogoniomorpha anacardii ssp. duprei).

Salamis anteva, Strabena goudotii, Strabena tamatave, Zicochrysops sanguigulla, red-veined swallowtail (Graphium cyrnus), Graphium evombar, African swallowtail (Papilio dardanus), Papilio delalandei, citrus swallowtail (Papilio demodocus), Papilio epiphorbas, Papilio erithonioides, Papilio grosesmithi, Madagascan emperor swallowtail (Papilio morondavana).

Madagascar giant swallowtail (Pharmacophagus antenor), sabine albatross (Appias sabina), Belenois grandidieri, Belenois helcida, Belenois mabella, African migrant (Catopsilia florella), Madagascar migrant (Catopsilia thauruma), Colotis evanthe, giant orange-tip (Colotis lucasi), small grass yellow (Eurema brigitta pulchella).

Angled grass yellow (Eurema desjardinsii desjardinsii), Malagasy grass yellow (Eurema floricola floricola), African wood white (Leptosia alcesta sylvicola), Mylothris phileris, Acropteris and Madagascan sunset moth (Chrysiridia rhipheus).

SEE ALSO
» Madagascar
» List of National Parks
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